Burqa-clad Afghan women show identification cards as they wait to cast their votes at a polling centre in Kandahar in 2009
Afghanistan has been named as the most dangerous place in the world to be a woman.
The study by the Thomson Reuters Foundation concluded that high levels of violence, poor health care and poverty came together in Afghanistan to provide the worst conditions for women.
The survey asked 213 gender experts from five continents to rank countries by risk, including cultural or religious factors, lack of access to resources and trafficking.
Afghanistan came out worst, despite 10 years of Western intervention.
The Democratic Republic of Congo and Pakistan followed in second and third positions.
India, the world's largest democracy, rated the fourth most dangerous location, largely due to high levels of female infanticide and sex trafficking.